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People with class I obesity and heart disease do not have greater rates of further heart problems than people of normal weight who also have heart disease.
In people with greater degrees of obesity, however, the risk of further cardiovascular events is increased.
As of 2006, more than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present.
Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Obesity is a major feature in several syndromes, such as Prader–Willi syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Cohen syndrome, and MOMO syndrome.
(The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions.) Studies that have focused on inheritance patterns rather than on specific genes have found that 80% of the offspring of two obese parents were also obese, in contrast to less than 10% of the offspring of two parents who were of normal weight.
Other evidence suggests that the association of BMI and waist circumference with mortality is U- or J-shaped, while the association between waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio with mortality is more positive.
Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle.